27 Nov Queen Elizabeth Laws
Three laws contain clauses that immunize their private property from expropriation. In a case first reported last year, the Queen`s lawyers secretly pushed for her to be immune to parts of a major Scottish law aimed at reducing carbon emissions. Personalised exceptions for the private Queen have been enshrined in more than 160 statutes since 1967, granting her full immunity from large parts of UK law – from animal welfare to workers` rights. Dozens of them grant additional immunity to his private real estate portfolio and grant him unique protection as an owner of large estates. So what exactly is the act and what role did the Queen play in his farewell? “If you`re committed to environmental or nature conservation and it turns out that some environmental or nature conservation laws — at least animal welfare — don`t apply to your private residences, then that doesn`t sound good,” Prescott said, “especially if you`re the only private residence in the country to which the law doesn`t apply.” The British government and Buckingham Palace declined to answer detailed questions about the procedure by which exemptions were obtained for the Windsor family. Both declined to say whether the Queen or her representatives had requested that private legal immunity be included in the legislation. A recent Guardian investigation separately revealed how the monarch influenced legislation with an obscure procedure known as the Queen`s Consent, in which her lawyers can review laws that could affect her before Parliament can approve it. According to the long-standing but ill-defined doctrine of sovereign immunity, no criminal and civil proceedings are instituted against the monarch as head of state. But a Guardian investigation, based on official documents and an analysis of legislation, shows how laws have been written or amended to establish immunity for their conduct as individuals, as well as for their private property and estate and even for a private company. The Queen`s Succession to the Crown Act (2013) amended the provisions of the Bill of Rights and the Act of Settlement to end the firstborn male system, under which a younger son could replace an eldest daughter in the line of succession. The law applies to people born after October 28, 2011 and means that any firstborn, regardless of gender, has the right to ascend the throne if they are in direct line with the monarch. But it`s about that high price. Not only are we saying that the monarch cannot be prosecuted according to our laws, but we are saying that they are not even laws for our monarch.
This causes big problems for our sense of equality before the law. This low-key approach is evident in the laws of the 1970s, when the Queen was exempted from laws such as the Sex Discrimination Act 1975. At the time, a Whitehall mandarin described in a letter to Martin Charteris, the Queen`s private secretary at the time, how the wording of an exception “had the substantial advantage of not drawing attention to the position of sovereign”. As head of state, Queen Elizabeth II was granted immunity from several laws. Whether it`s not requiring a driver`s license or not allowing their employees to file complaints of gender or racial discrimination, the list of exceptions is fascinating. Read on to find out more According to a Guardian report, more than 160 laws have been rewritten since 1967 to provide exceptions for Royal Highness. While some of the exceptions may be harmless, few raise eyebrows because they don`t fit modern standards of progress and inclusion. The former cannot sell royal property, but the latter can engage in trade, that is, in the purchase or sale of assets, like any other private citizen. But even then, few outdated laws were circumvented to protect Elizabeth Windsor`s legal and economic rights.
But there are, of course, more memorable moments: her accession to the throne in 1952 after the death of her father, King George VI, which made her a hasty queen at just 25 years old; or the heartbreaking image of the then 95-year-old woman alone in St. George`s Chapel in Windsor, dressed in black, with a matching mask, at the funeral of her husband, Prince Philip, last year. More than 30 different laws provide that police are prohibited from entering the private estates of Balmoral and Sandringham without the Queen`s permission to investigate alleged crimes, including wildlife and pollution offences – a legal immunity not granted to any other private landowner in the country. Succession to the throne is governed not only by filiation, but also by parliamentary law. The order of succession is the order of members of the royal family in the order in which they stand on the throne. The first in the order of succession to the throne, the heir, becomes king or queen when the reigning monarch dies, followed by the second in the order of succession, and so on, so that Prince William is now the heir to the throne and his son, Prince George, is the second in the order. The original constitution, which governed the accession of monarchs, was adopted in the 17th century. The Bill of Rights (1689) and the Act of Settlement (1701) meant that firstborn women who were direct descendants of the monarch could be ignored in favor of their younger male siblings. Thirty-one statutes contain Queen`s immunity clauses prohibiting police or environmental inspectors from entering the Windsor family`s private property unless their permission is first obtained. Sixteen are in Scotland, where it owns the 24,800-hectare (61,500-acre) Balmoral Estate, owned on its behalf by a private trust. However, since the devolution agreements of the first Blair government, the Scottish Parliament and the Welsh Senedd have passed their own tax laws.
Scottish ministers included Queen`s immunity clauses in laws passed between 2013 and 2017 that exempt the Queen from a variety of minor taxes imposed on other British citizens. It pays no tax on the purchase of land, no fees for the disposal of landfills and is partially exempt from customs duties on air travel. Queen Elizabeth grew up with the surname of her Windsor family home. But when she inherited the throne, she left her old name behind and took the name Elizabeth Regina. The nickname is the Latin word for “queen” and is used for all official documents. However, in most cases, only Elizabeth R. is sufficient. The Queen and her royal family would have immunity from anti-discrimination laws.
This means that any employee on the Queen`s payroll will not be allowed to file complaints of racial and gender discrimination. It has been suggested that there is a separate internal mechanism to hear such complaints, but it is unclear what due process will be followed. Other statutes include exceptions that exempt the Queen, as a private employer, from complying with various labour rights, health and safety or pension laws. It is exempt, in whole or in part, from at least four different employee pension statutes and is not required to comply with the Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1974. Exemptions inserted in four acts passed by the Westminster, Scotland and Wales Parliament between 2008 and 2017 stipulate that he not only pays taxes, but is also not obliged to provide information to tax inspectors or official statisticians.